Kiryl Mal. Anti-Bolshevik movement in Belarus during 1919-1921.

The article is dedicated to the very important aspect of the Soviet–Polish War which was almost totally ignored by the Soviet historians. According to them, the anti–bolshevik warfare in Belarus was caused by «international imperialism» and by «kulaks» (wealthy peasants) who were counted to be natural enemies of the Soviet power.

Meanwhile the main reason for the guerrilla war in the rear of the Red Army was bolshevik’s own policy. There were three main traits which, according to the author of the article, could be seen as the cause for hostile attitude of the Belarusian population to the bolsheviks. They are «red terror» and especially the Extraordinary Commission (the «Ch.K.») activity, «military communism» policy and the Red Army plundering of Belarusian peasants.

That is why many of the Belarusian people had to fight against the bolshevik with arms. There were different ways to do it. The first one was to join the Polish Army and part of the Belarusian men did it. However, most of them chose guerrilla warfare and participation in uprisings as the ways of anti–Bolshevik struggle. Those methods were wide–spread in Belarus in 1919—21. Using archive–based documentary records the author shows the development of anti–Bolsheviks movement. According to the author, it came to its peak in 1921 when the population of Belarus was devastated by the war. Supported by the most part of Belarusian peasants hostile to the Bolsheviks, guerrilla warriors attacked different military objects and even large military detachments. Several guerilla operations unknown earlier are mentioned. Special attention is paid to the methods of putting down anti–bolsheviks movement in Belarus by the Soviet authorities, which were extremely cruel.

In conclusion, the author tries to analyse the results of the anti–bolshevik warfare in Belarus. He considers that this warfare was one of the main reasons for the Red Army’s defeat at the battle of Warsaw and therefore its defeat in the war. Permanent war in the rear weakened the Bolsheviks’ West Front and deprived them of the possibility to gather sufficient number of troops to crush the Polish army resistance at the battle of Warsaw.