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Andrej Januśkević. Unexercіsed chances of revenge: the Grand Duchy of Lіthuanіa іn the end of the Lіvonіan war (1558—1570)

In the war with Moscow in 1558-1570 the seizure of the castle of Ulain 1568 could become a crucial moment for the interception of initiative by the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. This new castle near Polack was of a great strategic importance. The Field hetman Raman Sanhuška called upon to the urgent offensive action, the ruling elite of the Grand Duchy, however, didn’t support the idea. Such inactivity was mainly caused by the lack of finance resources for prosecution of the war. The mission of Lithuanian messenger Ulan Bukraba to Moscow in autumn of 1568 was aimed to keep the calm at front during the period of conclusion of the Act of Union between the Grand Duchy and the Kingdom of Poland. It’s a pity but the Council of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania considered the Livonian war and the Union with Poland to be connected as a cause and effect with no understanding that only a victorious war or at least a striking victory could postpone the Union. The problem was not only in political inactivity of the Grand Duchy magnates but also in a kind of prevalence of a private interest over the public one that exhibited a tendency to escape the need to use personal resources for state and political purposes. The representatives of nobility used to regard a state crisis of finance and material resources as a ground for their personal enrichment.